Counting sort — 计数排序

原理:

假设待排序对象为整数,且范围为1…1000;

举例:2,3,3,4

首先统计每个数字出现的次数,用c[i]表示。i表示数字,c[i]表示数字i出现的次数;

c[1] = 0;  c[2] = 1;  c[3] = 2;  c[4]=1;

然后从小到大,统计比每个数小的数一共有多少,用a[i]表示。i表示数字,a[i]=c[1]+c[2]+c[3]…+c[i]

a[2] = 1;a[3] = 3;a[4]=4;

接着算出每个数字的序数;遍历每个数字,算出其序数,将这个数字直接放在数组rank中,其对应的位置上;

for(int i = 1;i <= n;i ++) rank[– c[a[i]]] = a[i];

整个过程并没有一个数组专门来存所有待排列数字,只有一个数组rank来存储排列好的数字,所有一样大的数字之间的顺序取决于代码实现的过程。

《算法设计编程实验》中提到使用计数排序来实现后缀数组中rank数组的计算(这里的rank是后缀数组的rank),其实是笔误,那里用的是基数排序。

 

How to Become a Bioinformatics Professional

1 Under­stand what Bioin­for­mati­cians do.

  • Broad­ly, com­pu­ta­tion­al biol­o­gy is involved with devel­op­ing and imple­ment­ing tools in order to use and man­age bio­log­i­cal data.
  • The med­ical field is a major employ­er of Bioin­for­mati­cians, but they are also need­ed in indus­try and agri­cul­ture.

2 Stay abreast of new devel­op­ments in Bioin­for­mat­ics and biotech­nol­o­gy.

  • This high­ly tech­no­log­i­cal field is under­go­ing rapid changes.
  • The Bioin­for­mat­ics Orga­ni­za­tion offers con­tin­u­ing edu­ca­tion cours­es.

3 Become pro­fi­cient in com­put­er sci­ence.

  • This includes data­base admin­is­tra­tion and pro­gram­ming skills.
  • UNIX is cur­rent­ly the pre­ferred oper­at­ing sys­tem plat­form.
  • Be able to write pro­grams in com­put­er lan­guages such as PERL, SQL and C.
  • Learn to use genomic sequence analy­sis and mol­e­c­u­lar mod­el­ing pro­grams.

4 Study col­lege lev­el biol­o­gy.

  • Biol­o­gy cours­es should include ana­lyt­i­cal tech­niques and mol­e­c­u­lar biol­o­gy.

5 Take math cours­es, par­tic­u­lar­ly those for biol­o­gists.

  • Bio­sta­tis­tics is an impor­tant dis­ci­pline in Bioin­for­mat­ics.

6 Pur­sue high­er edu­ca­tion. Under­grad­u­ate degrees can be in biol­o­gy, com­put­er sci­ence or biotech­nol­o­gy.

  • In grad­u­ate school, find a pro­gram that com­bi­nes both dis­ci­plines, if pos­si­ble; how­ev­er the empha­sis seems to be on mol­e­c­u­lar biol­o­gy study with the acquir­ing of infor­ma­tion tech­nol­o­gy skills.
  • Bioin­for­mat­ics or com­pu­ta­tion­al biol­o­gy pro­grams are still fair­ly new.
  • Researchers should have a doc­tor­ate in biol­o­gy, sta­tis­tics or math.

7 Learn to iden­ti­fy the right ques­tions to ask in addi­tion to the method­olo­gies to apply.

听起来就是这么容易……

http://www.wikihow.com/Become-a-Bioinformatics-Professional

DNA Packaging: Nucleosomes and Chromatin

18847_6

At the top right por­tion of the dia­gram, a ver­ti­cal dou­ble-end­ed arrow indi­cates that the DNA dou­ble helix strands are 2 nm apart. The strands are rep­re­sent­ed as gray rib­bons con­nect­ed by ver­ti­cal col­ored bars that are either half red/half green or half yellow/half cyan.

As the DNA strand reach­es the left side of the illus­tra­tion, all col­ors are replaced by gray. Box 1 has the text “At the sim­plest lev­el, chro­mat­in is a dou­ble-strand­ed heli­cal struc­ture of DNA. The DNA strand turns down and goes back toward the right, still com­pact­ing along the way.

Below this is Box 2, with the text “DNA is com­plexed with his­tones to form nucle­o­somes.” Toward the cen­ter of the schemat­ic are three sets of two brown discs, each disc quar­tered, and the cylin­ders are wrapped 1.65 times by the DNA, which has now com­pact­ed into a thick gray thread shape. Each nucle­o­some con­sists of eight his­tone mol­e­cules.

To the right of the first nucle­o­some com­plex is Box 3, with the text “Each nucle­o­some con­sists of eight his­tone pro­teins around which the DNA wraps 1.65 times.” The sec­ond nucle­o­some has a ver­ti­cal red bar, about as long as the nucle­o­some is high, attached to the side of the nucle­o­some. This bar is labeled H1 his­tone. A hor­i­zon­tal, dou­ble-end­ed, black arrow indi­cates the nucle­o­some with DNA has a diam­e­ter of 11 nm. A third nucle­o­some to the right of the sec­ond is labeled “Chro­mato­some.” Above and to the right of the chro­mato­some is Box 4, with the text “A chro­mato­some con­sists of a nucle­o­some plus the H1 his­tone.”

Below this, the nucle­o­somes are fold­ed in on each oth­er to form a hol­low, tube-like fiber, where many nucle­o­somes are arranged in par­al­lel rings to form the tube’s out­er lay­er. To the right of this is a ver­ti­cal, dou­ble-end­ed, black arrow labeled 30 nm. To the right of this arrow is Box 5, with the text “The nucle­o­somes fold up to pro­duce a 30-nm fiber…” The nucle­o­some tube con­tin­ues to com­pact to form a gray spi­ral and gray squig­gles as it con­tin­ues left­ward. Above this is Box 6 with the text “… that forms loops aver­ag­ing 300 nm in length.” A black, ver­ti­cal, dou­ble-end­ed arrow is labeled 300 nm. The squig­gles com­pact fur­ther, going down and back toward the right, coil­ing like a tele­phone cord. Below this is Box 7 with the text “The 300-nm fibers are com­pressed and fold­ed to pro­duce a 250-nm-wide fiber.” A black, ver­ti­cal, dou­ble-end­ed arrow is labeled 700 nm. Two, inward-point­ing, black arrows indi­cate a gap labeled “250-nm-wide fiber.”

The­se coils con­tin­ue to the right and com­press fur­ther, form­ing a hor­i­zon­tal, X-shaped, chro­mo­some. A black, ver­ti­cal, dou­ble-end­ed arrow is labeled 1400 nm. Below this is Box 8 with the text “Tight coil­ing of the 250-nm fiber pro­duces the chro­matid of a chro­mo­some.”

这里的欠缺在于,从图框6到图框8之间的折叠细节没有交代清楚。而且染色质\染色体的构象是随着时间在发生动态变化的,并非一成不变的。所以上述描述可以说是一个剪影。

http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/DNA-Packaging-Nucleosomes-and-Chromatin-310

押棋新纪录

  1. 2016.5.4 二区间押分:172000(全押);获得:516000;收益:344000。总弈币:516000;
    2016-05-04_0203282016-05-04_020428
    判断依据:
    1. 前面八十手,选手’乌市少年宫’计算速度比’ltsoo’快许多,而且,在八十手之前,局面还是五五开,所以我决定押乌市少年宫;
    2. 看到2/3的人押ltsoo,我觉得我应该全押获得最大利润;
    3. 还有一个直觉,那就是我相信小孩子的战斗力;
    中盘的时候将双活看错了,于是以为白输棋了,当时伤心啊,还在对话区说,白输多了。想来也是不应该。别人对局时自己无论如何不该说话。
    白棋右下角当黑棋打入时的计算又快又准。左上角的做活堪称一绝。对黑棋的侵消是处处紧逼,恰到好处。这是我截止目前最高的弈币收入。我本来说,等我弈币上一百万,我的棋艺肯定会精进不少,因为押分能力增强了嘛。不过看来,对小孩子的偏信和运气能够使我很快到达一百万。看来得上一千万时我的棋艺才会通过押棋得到较大飞升。
  2. 2016.5.12 一区间押分:100000(小酌);获得:450000;收益:350000。总弈币:855460。
    这局棋押胜吧,我是开了sgo的。我把对局下载下来,然后用sgo判断,黑领先8目,当时,黑的赔率是4.5倍,所以我就押了十万,小酌一下,毕竟我的总弈币都有五十多万,押十万输了影响也不大。
    另外,弈币和人民币的汇率为:1元=1金币=40万弈币。

Excel 数据分析

  1. 回归分析
  2. 直线图
  3. 快速公式套用:
    1. 在一个格子内输入公式;
    2. 点击该格子,Ctrl+Shift+方向,选定所有需要套用的格子;
    3. Ctrl+D,完成计算。

 

Oxford Nanopore Technology — MinION

Min­ION is a portable device for mol­e­c­u­lar analy­ses that is dri­ven by nanopore tech­nol­o­gy. It is adapt­able for the analy­sis of DNA, RNA, pro­teins or small mol­e­cules with a straight­for­ward work­flow.

MinION

Scalability

The Min­ION can be run for min­utes or days accord­ing to the exper­i­men­tal need. Users can adjust set­tings like the speed that the DNA pass­es through the nanopore. Prome­thION, which will soon be released into ear­ly access, is designed to be ful­ly scal­able so that users can oper­ate between one or 48 flow cells at any one time.

Long read lengths

The Oxford Nanopore sys­tem process­es the reads that are pre­sent­ed to it rather than gen­er­at­ing speci­fic read lengths. The longest read report­ed by a Min­ION user to date is more than 200Kb, but it can process the spec­trum of read lengths.

身边的算法

  1. windows自带纸牌游戏(NP难)
    对于如何生成一副可被完成的组合,这是一个NP难问题;电脑每次随机生成一副牌,不保证一定有解。所以有时候,纸牌游戏无论如何都完成不了时,可能是这次真的完成不了,而不是你自己的问题。不过,判定到底是你的问题还是电脑的问题仍然是NP难的问题。可以编写一个程序,来算:当我们觉得已经无法前进时,出现了的所有牌,是否存在一种新的组合会使得出现新的翻牌希望。

Keywords of Genomics

Pop­u­la­tion genet­ics

Pop­u­la­tion genet­ics is the study of the dis­tri­b­u­tion and change in fre­quen­cy of alle­les with­in pop­u­la­tions, and as such it sits firm­ly with­in the field of evo­lu­tion­ary biol­o­gy.

The main process­es of evo­lu­tion are nat­u­ral selec­tion, genet­ic drift, gene flow, muta­tion, and genet­ic recom­bi­na­tion and they form an inte­gral part of the the­o­ry that under­pins pop­u­la­tion genet­ics.

Stud­ies in this branch of biol­o­gy exam­ine such phe­nom­e­na as adap­ta­tion, spe­ci­a­tion, pop­u­la­tion sub­di­vi­sion, and pop­u­la­tion struc­ture.

Pop­u­la­tion strat­i­fi­ca­tion

Pop­u­la­tion strat­i­fi­ca­tion refers to dif­fer­ences in allele fre­quen­cies between cas­es and con­trols due to sys­tem­at­ic dif­fer­ences in ances­try rather than asso­ci­a­tion of genes with dis­ease.

It would be caused by sys­tem­at­ic dif­fer­ences in the ances­try of cas­es and con­trols.

Diploid genome

Diploid genome refers to a genome that con­tains a bal­anced set of chro­mo­somes derived equal­ly from mater­nal and pater­nal sources.

Coa­les­cent the­o­ry

Coa­les­cent the­o­ry is a ret­ro­spec­tive sto­chas­tic mod­el of pop­u­la­tion genet­ics that relates genet­ic diver­si­ty in a sam­ple to demo­graph­ic his­to­ry of the pop­u­la­tion from which it was tak­en.

That is, it is a mod­el of the effect of genet­ic drift, viewed back­wards in time, on the geneal­o­gy of antecedents.

GitHub

Repos­i­to­ry

A repos­i­to­ry is usu­al­ly used to orga­nize a sin­gle project. Repos­i­to­ries can con­tain fold­ers and files, images, videos, spread­sheets, and data sets – any­thing your project needs. We rec­om­mend includ­ing a README, or a file with infor­ma­tion about your project. GitHub makes it easy to add one at the same time you cre­ate your new repos­i­to­ry. It also offers oth­er com­mon options such as a license file.

Branch

Branch­ing is the way to work on dif­fer­ent ver­sions of a repos­i­to­ry at one time.

By default your repos­i­to­ry has one branch named mas­ter which is con­sid­ered to be the defin­i­tive branch. We use branch­es to exper­i­ment and make edits before com­mit­ting them to mas­ter.

Com­mit

On GitHub, saved changes are called com­mits.

Pull Request

When you open a pull request, you’re propos­ing your changes and request­ing that some­one review and pull in your con­tri­bu­tion and merge them into their branch. Pull requests show diffs, or dif­fer­ences, of the con­tent from both branch­es. The changes, addi­tions, and sub­trac­tions are shown in green and red.

GitHub Pages

Not­twya

GitHub Pages are pub­lic web­pages host­ed and pub­lished through our site.

You can cre­ate and pub­lish GitHub Pages online using the Auto­mat­ic Page Gen­er­a­tor. If you prefer to work local­ly, you can use the GitHub Desk­top or the com­mand line.

Pages are served over HTTP, not HTTPS, so you shouldn’t use them for sen­si­tive trans­ac­tions, like send­ing pass­words or cred­it card num­bers.

如何读文章?

  1. 读摘要
    通过摘要,我们能快速知道,这篇文章的主题、研究对象和实验结论等,这些能够帮助我们最终确定这篇文章是否含有我们需要的信息;
  2. 读图
    通过读图,我们能够迅速知道这篇文章比较凝练的信息,从而快速切入这篇文章的核心结论;此外,图片方便理解,通过图片能够帮助我们对文章建立初步认识;
  3. 选读
    在进行了上面两步以后,选定自己感兴趣的部分进行深入阅读。

J.Q. Liu

  1. Yak whole-genome rese­quenc­ing reveals domes­ti­ca­tion sig­na­tures and pre­his­toric pop­u­la­tion expan­sions (2015)
    1. genome vari­a­tion of wild and domes­tic yaks
    2. evo­lu­tion
  2. Genome rese­quenc­ing: 13 wild yaks and 59 domes­tic yaks

windows install and configure

如果是让电脑维修店的人重装系统,要注意找一家好一点的维修店。因为,重装系统看似一样,其实,每个店使用的安装镜像以及一些细节的配置是有出入的。去一家很差的店,重装的系统,会给自己后期的配置带来极大的困难。

  1. 操作系统重装
    win7
  2. 硬件驱动重装
    1.显卡驱动
  3. 软件重装
    1. Direc­tX
  4. 运行库
  5. 编程语言编译工具
    1. Java
    2. MinGW
    3. Straw­ber­ry Perl
  6. 小工具
    1. dae­mon tool lites
    2. pchunter
    3. xming+putty
  7. 123

NCBI 使用注意事项及技巧

  1. 关于序列标识join和complement:
    join:表示序列是模板链上的5'->3';
    complement:表示序列是编码链上的5'->3';
    example:
    join:
    现在(2016.4.5),似乎没有再标识join了。
    complement:
    我看到的素有gene类别下的序列都是给的complement。

    gene complement(2872..3195)
    /gene=" lacZ' "
    Sequence:NC_000913.3 (363231..366305, complement)

  2. 在指定的基因组检索目的序列:打开基因组,然后输入目的序列,开始检索。
  3. 对于蛋白质,NCBI提供了查看其CD(conserved domain),名字叫“Identify Conserved Domains”;

WordPress 建站配置

  1. 连接数据库
    1. 在空间提供商处找到数据库的IP;
    2. 在网站根目录下找到WP的wp-config.php文件;
    3. 将DB_HOST的值,改为数据库的IP
  2. 备份
    1. 使用WP自带的工具中的导出工具,导出能被WP模板普遍识别的网站内容,方便在网站出现意外时,在任何一个新的WP木板上导入网站所有内容(不含图片)。
    2. 使用空间提供商的数据下载,直接下载整个网站,如若网站出现问题,直接从新上传整个WP;
  3. 防垃圾评论
    1. WP自身会要求管理者审核每一条评论;
    2. 使用Akismet,以后会自动过滤同一个邮箱的评论;

Windows 10系统故障修复和优化配置集锦

  1. 开机蓝屏,出现“BAD_SYSTEM_CONFIG_INFO”:(windows 10)
    1. 选择“高级修复-疑难解答-命令提示符”
    2. 执行命令:“bcdedit /deletevalue {default} truncatememory
  2. 运行时蓝屏,出现:
    1. video memory management internal: 安装合适的显卡驱动
    2. VIDEO TDR FAILURE (nvlddmkm.sys)
    3.video scheduler internal error
  3. 出现蓝屏死机(Blue screen of death)时,系统自动记录DMP文件所在位置(win-10):c:/Windows/Minidump/
  4. IE浏览器打不开网页(windows 7)
    1. 选择“Internet选项-高级”
    2. 在“重置Internet Explorer设置”处,点击重置
  5. DLL
    1. 安装:Visual C++ Redistributable Packages for Visual Studio 2013,msvcp120.dll,Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 可再发行组件包 (x86)
  6. 无法指定一个电脑上存在的软件为默认打开程序
    1. 打开注册表编辑器;(cmd->regedit);
    2. 到达该位置:HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\Applications
    3. 检查该软件是否存在,不存在则添加;检查该软件路径是否正确,不正确则修改正确路径。
  7. 系统和压缩内存占用内存过高
    0. cmd -> regedit;
    1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\Session  Manager\Memory Management\PrefetchParameters
    2. 将“EnablePrefetcher”和“EnableSuperfetch”的值调为2;
    3. 重启;
    备注:
    值-2 :开启系统启动预读取
    值-3 :开启应用启动和系统启动预读取
  8. win10-关闭Cortana
    1. 点击启动按钮;
    2. 点击设置->隐私->语音、墨迹书写和键入;
    3. 点击,停止搜集有关我的信息;
  9. win10-关闭windows search
    1. 控制面板->管理工具->服务;
    2. 禁用windows search。
  10. win10-禁止自动更新
    1. gpedit.msc
    2. 计算机配置—管理模板—Windows组件-Windows更新
    3. “配置自动更新”,“2 = 在下载和安装任何更新前发出通知”
  11. Itunes: error 7 (windows error 193)
    当我们从win7升级到win10以后,可能会出现这个软件无法卸载,并且新的itune不能安装。这个时候怎么办呢?就得使用微软专门开发的工具: MicrosoftProgram_Install_and_Uninstall.meta.diagcab。
    运行这个软件,卸载掉apple software update,之后就可以顺利安装itunes了。
    微软的两个帖子,如何解决 Windows installer 服务的问题修复阻止程序安装或删除的问题
  12. 接入需要验证的拨号网络时,会自动打开浏览器并连接这个网址:http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=219472&clcid=0x409
    1. sfc/scannow (windows+x,命令提示符-管理员)
    What is the Sfc Command?
    The sfc command is a Command Prompt command that can be used to verify and replace important Windows system files.
    System File Checker is a very useful tool to use when you suspect issues with protected Windows files like many DLL files.
    Sfc /scannow will inspect all of the important Windows files on your computer, including Windows DLL files. If System File Checker finds an issue with any of these protected files, it will replace it.
    2. run:

    findstr /c:"[SR] Cannot repair member file" %windir%\logs\cbs\cbs.log > "%userprofile%"\Desktop\sfcdetails.txt

    3. correct the error according to the information given in the file "Desktop\sfcdetails.txt";

  13. 通过防火墙禁止应用程序联网:
    1. win+x;
    2.控制面板,小图标,windows防火墙;
    3.高级设置,入战规则,新建规则;
    4.程序,此程序路径,阻止连接。
    caveat:一定要在公用网络和专用网络下都打开windows防火墙,方法:到达上面第2步后,点击“启用或关闭windows防火墙”,打开两个网络下的防火墙。
  14. 右下角小图标收拢
    1.点击左下角图标,点击设置,点击系统
    2.点击通知和操作
    3.选择在任务栏上显示哪些图标
    4.关闭“通知区域始终显示所有图标”
  15. 清除右键多余项:
    1.  win+r
    2. regedit, 回车;
    3.  编辑,搜索需要删除的项目
    4. (如果需要删除的项目,是已经卸载的软件)删掉所有搜索出来的结果。(更可能是hkey-local-machine下的)补充信息:
    reg_sz:A null-terminated string. This will be either a Unicode or an ANSI string, depending on whether you use the Unicode or ANSI functions.
  16. chm打开后空白
    右键->属性->勾选:解除锁定
  17. 开启管理员账户状态:
    1. cmd: gpedit.msc
    2. Windows 设置 -> 安全设置 -> 本地策略 -> 安全选项,找到“账户:管理员账户状态”
    3. 右键,属性,修改为已启用。
  18. 禁止计算机进入睡眠和休眠:
    比较容易达到的是禁止计算机睡眠,但是禁止计算机休眠的选项在很深的位置,这样一来,计算机长时间(我的是3小时)不用以后,就会进入休眠,这会给远程控制带来很大的麻烦。改变这个设置的具体操作流程如下:
    1. win+i,启动设置界面
    2. 系统->电源和睡眠->其他电源设置->更改计算机睡眠时间->更改高级电源设置->睡眠->在此时间后休眠
    3. “接通电源”选项后面的框内,选择:从不。
  19. foobar

五分法-如何读书或者文章

从Pod­cast-清华大学广播台-珊越拾穗–读书小贴士里听到的,觉得很有用。特此记录下来,不断加深巩固理解。

如何读书

  1. 历史化(historicize)
    了解这个书或者文章产生的背景。
  2. 对话式(dialogue)
    看一本书时,要有一个跟这本书相反意见的或者跟他相似意见的书,同时去看。看别的作家怎么讨论这个问题。然后就会发现作家的风格不同,读起来感觉不同。另外是读者跟作者的对话。
  3. 智性化(intellectualize)
    从读书过程中找到、发展自己的观点。
  4. 转化(transformative)
    通过阅读,有自己的发现和创新。

读文章

  1. 找到作者想要回答的问题
    作者通过写这本书,这篇文献,想要解决什么问题。
  2. 他有表述哪些竞争性的理论
    一个研究不可能是开天辟地,头一个的研究。这个问题肯定之前有被研究过,或者其他理论可以解释这个问题。在作者的作品中,他使用了哪些人的理论来解释这个问题,他是怎么解释的,这些理论在解释这个问题中是否有什么不足。
  3. 作者提出了他自己的什么观点
    除了前人的理论,他自己对这个问题的解读。
  4. 他用了什么东西,什么样的步骤,什么数据证明自己
    他是怎么证明自己的观点的。
  5. 他的长处和不足
    讨论他的文章的长处和不足。

写文章

  1. 我要解答什么问题;
  2. 别人是怎么解答这个问题的;
  3. 我和别人有什么不一样;
  4. 我怎么证明这个不一样是站得住脚的;
  5. 那我有什么不足或者我有什么新的发现或者我有什么优点。

特此向主播的导师,总结出这个方法的人,致以我的敬意。

TED speaker

Benoit Man­del­brot: (20 Novem­ber 1924 – 14 Octo­ber 2010)

TED title: Frac­tals and the rough­ness
Intro­duc­tion:  Benoit Man­del­brot was a Pol­ish-born, French and Amer­i­can math­e­mati­cian. He is rec­og­nized for his con­tri­bu­tion to the field of frac­tal geom­e­try, which includ­ed coin­ing the word “frac­tal” as well as for devel­op­ing a “the­o­ry of rough­ness” and “self-sim­i­lar­i­ty” in nature.

Carter Emmart

TED title: A 3D atlas of the uni­verse
Intro­duc­tion: It is a stand­alone 4-dimen­sion­al space visu­al­iza­tion appli­ca­tion built on the pro­gram­ma­ble Partiview data visu­al­iza­tion engine designed by Stu­art Levy of the Nation­al Cen­ter for Super­com­put­ing Appli­ca­tions (NCSA) as an adjunct of the NCSA’s Vir­tu­al Direc­tor vir­tu­al chore­og­ra­phy project. The Vir­tu­al Uni­verse Atlas project was launched by the Amer­i­can Muse­um of Nat­u­ral History’s Hay­den Plan­e­tar­i­um with sig­nif­i­cant pro­gram­ming sup­port from the Nation­al Aero­nau­tics and Space Admin­is­tra­tion as well as Stu­art Levy. The data­base draws on the Nation­al Vir­tu­al Obser­va­to­ry.

Daniel Kah­ne­man

TED title: The rid­dle of expe­ri­ence vs. mem­o­ry.
Intro­duc­tion: (Hebrew: דניאל כהנמן‎, born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-Amer­i­can psy­chol­o­gist notable for his work on the psy­chol­o­gy of judg­ment and deci­sion-mak­ing, as well as behav­ioral eco­nom­ics, for which he was award­ed the 2002 Nobel Memo­ri­al Prize in Eco­nom­ic Sci­ences (shared with Ver­non L. Smith). His empir­i­cal find­ings chal­lenge the assump­tion of human ratio­nal­i­ty pre­vail­ing in mod­ern eco­nom­ic the­o­ry.