The yak (Bos grunniens) is a widely domesticated long-haired bovine native to the Tibetan Plateau of Central Asia. Their physiological adaptations for life at high altidudes include enlarged lungs and hearts, a form of haemoglobin with greater oxygen carrying capacity, thick fur, and a thick layer of subcutaneous fat. Wild yak populations (Bos mutus or Bos grunniens mutus) are now restricted to a few small regions in China and India.
- Qiu, Q. et al. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude. Nature genetics 44, 946–949, doi:10.1038/ng.2343 (2012).