ch10f6Tran­scrip­tion of two genes. (a) RNA poly­merase moves from the 3′ end of the tem­plate strand, cre­at­ing an RNA strand that grows in a 5′ → 3′ direc­tion (because it must be antipar­al­lel to the tem­plate strand). Note that some genes are tran­scribed from one strand of the DNA dou­ble helix; oth­er genes use the oth­er strand as the tem­plate. (b) A uracil is being added to the 3′ end of the tran­script for gene 1. Growth is thus 5′ → 3′.

from: NCBI


Bio­Mart is a com­mu­ni­ty-dri­ven project to provide uni­fied access to dis­trib­ut­ed research data to facil­i­tate the sci­en­tific dis­cov­ery process.

The Bio­Mart project pro­vides free soft­ware and data ser­vices to the inter­na­tion­al sci­en­tific com­mu­ni­ty in order to fos­ter sci­en­tific col­lab­o­ra­tion and facil­i­tate the sci­en­tific dis­cov­ery process. The project adheres to the open source phi­los­o­phy that pro­motes col­lab­o­ra­tion and code reuse.


Homo sapiens (human)

Human genome projects have gen­er­at­ed an unprece­dent­ed amount of knowl­edge about human genet­ics and health.

Study of the human con­di­tion such as genet­ic and infec­tious dis­ease, the inter­sec­tion between genet­ics and the envi­ron­ment, and pop­u­la­tion vari­a­tion is sup­port­ed by a wealth of genome-scale data. The­se data sets include: a) numer­ous sequenced genomes includ­ing sev­er­al which have been assem­bled; b) stud­ies that exam­ine tran­script and pro­tein exis­tence, abun­dance, and dif­fer­en­tial expres­sion; c) epige­nomic and func­tion­al stud­ies to define reg­u­la­to­ry and oth­er sequence ele­ments; and d) pop­u­la­tion stud­ies to define small and large vari­a­tions in the genome, tran­scrip­tome, pro­teome, epigenome, or the micro­bio­me. The result is an unprece­dent­ed amount of data and knowl­edge con­cern­ing human genet­ics that will result in break­throughs in under­stand­ing human biol­o­gy as well as sig­nif­i­cant med­ical advances.A chal­lenge fac­ing researchers today is that of ana­lyz­ing and inte­grat­ing the pletho­ra of data avail­able. The sequence and oth­er mol­e­c­u­lar data avail­able pro­vides a crit­i­cal foun­da­tion for con­tin­ued advances in med­i­cine, basic research, and clin­i­cal diag­nos­tic tech­nolo­gies.


Screenshot from 2016-11-18 10-39-16

Bos mutus (wild yak)

The yak (Bos grun­niens) is a wide­ly domes­ti­cat­ed long-haired bovine native to the Tibetan Plateau of Cen­tral Asia. Their phys­i­o­log­i­cal adap­ta­tions for life at high altidudes include enlarged lungs and hearts, a form of haemo­glo­bin with greater oxy­gen car­ry­ing capac­i­ty, thick fur, and a thick lay­er of sub­cu­ta­neous fat. Wild yak pop­u­la­tions (Bos mutus or Bos grun­niens mutus) are now restrict­ed to a few small regions in Chi­na and India. 

yakScreenshot from 2016-11-18 10-35-09


  1. Qiu, Q. et al. The yak genome and adap­ta­tion to life at high alti­tude. Nature genet­ics 44, 946–949, doi:10.1038/ng.2343 (2012).
  2. nott

C. elegans (caenorhabditis elegans)

This worm is a well-stud­ied mod­el organ­ism for devel­op­men­tal biol­o­gy, sys­tems biol­o­gy, and genet­ics.

Caenorhab­di­tis ele­gans, a free-liv­ing soil nema­tode, is wide­ly used as a mod­el organ­ism. It is trans­par­ent, and con­sists of 959 somat­ic cells. This eas­i­ly cul­tured worm pro­vides a mod­el for com­plex organ sys­tems, as well as devel­op­men­tal biol­o­gy and genet­ics. Caenorhab­di­tis ele­ganswas the first mul­ti­cel­lu­lar eukary­otic genome to be com­plete­ly sequenced.The Caenorhab­di­tis ele­gans nuclear genome is approx­i­mate­ly 100 Mb, dis­trib­ut­ed among six chro­mo­somes.


Screenshot from 2016-11-18 10-25-04