ch10f6Transcription of two genes. (a) RNA polymerase moves from the 3′ end of the template strand, creating an RNA strand that grows in a 5′ → 3′ direction (because it must be antiparallel to the template strand). Note that some genes are transcribed from one strand of the DNA double helix; other genes use the other strand as the template. (b) A uracil is being added to the 3′ end of the transcript for gene 1. Growth is thus 5′ → 3′.

from: NCBI


BioMart is a community-driven project to provide unified access to distributed research data to facilitate the scientific discovery process.

The BioMart project provides free software and data services to the international scientific community in order to foster scientific collaboration and facilitate the scientific discovery process. The project adheres to the open source philosophy that promotes collaboration and code reuse.


Homo sapiens (human)

Human genome projects have generated an unprecedented amount of knowledge about human genetics and health.

Study of the human condition such as genetic and infectious disease, the intersection between genetics and the environment, and population variation is supported by a wealth of genome-scale data. These data sets include: a) numerous sequenced genomes including several which have been assembled; b) studies that examine transcript and protein existence, abundance, and differential expression; c) epigenomic and functional studies to define regulatory and other sequence elements; and d) population studies to define small and large variations in the genome, transcriptome, proteome, epigenome, or the microbiome. The result is an unprecedented amount of data and knowledge concerning human genetics that will result in breakthroughs in understanding human biology as well as significant medical advances.A challenge facing researchers today is that of analyzing and integrating the plethora of data available. The sequence and other molecular data available provides a critical foundation for continued advances in medicine, basic research, and clinical diagnostic technologies.


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Bos mutus (wild yak)

The yak (Bos grunniens) is a widely domesticated long-haired bovine native to the Tibetan Plateau of Central Asia. Their physiological adaptations for life at high altidudes include enlarged lungs and hearts, a form of haemoglobin with greater oxygen carrying capacity, thick fur, and a thick layer of subcutaneous fat. Wild yak populations (Bos mutus or Bos grunniens mutus) are now restricted to a few small regions in China and India.

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  1. Qiu, Q. et al. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude. Nature genetics 44, 946-949, doi:10.1038/ng.2343 (2012).
  2. nott

C. elegans (caenorhabditis elegans)

This worm is a well-studied model organism for developmental biology, systems biology, and genetics.

Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living soil nematode, is widely used as a model organism. It is transparent, and consists of 959 somatic cells. This easily cultured worm provides a model for complex organ systems, as well as developmental biology and genetics. Caenorhabditis eleganswas the first multicellular eukaryotic genome to be completely sequenced.The Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear genome is approximately 100 Mb, distributed among six chromosomes.


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