Three Rs and Five Freedoms

The Three Rs tenet (Replace­ment, Reduc­tion and Refine­ment) guides sci­en­tists on the eth­i­cal use of ani­mals in sci­ence.

  • Replace­ment refers to meth­ods which avoid or replace the use of ani­mals in an area where ani­mals would oth­er­wise have been used
  • Reduc­tion refers to any strat­e­gy that will result in few­er ani­mals being used
  • Refine­ment refers to the mod­i­fi­ca­tion of hus­bandry or exper­i­men­tal pro­ce­dures to min­i­mize pain and dis­tress

The Five Freedoms Are:

  1. Free­dom from hunger and thirst (by ready access to fresh water and a diet to main­tain full health and vigour).
  2. Free­dom from dis­com­fort (by pro­vid­ing an appro­pri­ate envi­ron­ment includ­ing shel­ter and a com­fort­able rest­ing area).
  3. Free­dom from pain, injury and dis­ease (by pre­ven­tion or rapid diag­no­sis and treat­ment).
  4. Free­dom to express nor­mal behav­iour (by pro­vid­ing suf­fi­cient space, prop­er facil­i­ties and com­pa­ny of the animal’s own kind).
  5. Free­dom from fear and dis­tress (by ensur­ing con­di­tions and treat­ment which avoid men­tal suf­fer­ing).

relat­ed infor­ma­tion:

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