Keywords of Genomics

Pop­u­la­tion genet­ics

Pop­u­la­tion genet­ics is the study of the dis­tri­b­u­tion and change in fre­quen­cy of alle­les with­in pop­u­la­tions, and as such it sits firm­ly with­in the field of evo­lu­tion­ary biol­o­gy.

The main process­es of evo­lu­tion are nat­u­ral selec­tion, genet­ic drift, gene flow, muta­tion, and genet­ic recom­bi­na­tion and they form an inte­gral part of the the­o­ry that under­pins pop­u­la­tion genet­ics.

Stud­ies in this branch of biol­o­gy exam­ine such phe­nom­e­na as adap­ta­tion, spe­ci­a­tion, pop­u­la­tion sub­di­vi­sion, and pop­u­la­tion struc­ture.

Pop­u­la­tion strat­i­fi­ca­tion

Pop­u­la­tion strat­i­fi­ca­tion refers to dif­fer­ences in allele fre­quen­cies between cas­es and con­trols due to sys­tem­at­ic dif­fer­ences in ances­try rather than asso­ci­a­tion of genes with dis­ease.

It would be caused by sys­tem­at­ic dif­fer­ences in the ances­try of cas­es and con­trols.

Diploid genome

Diploid genome refers to a genome that con­tains a bal­anced set of chro­mo­somes derived equal­ly from mater­nal and pater­nal sources.

Coa­les­cent the­o­ry

Coa­les­cent the­o­ry is a ret­ro­spec­tive sto­chas­tic mod­el of pop­u­la­tion genet­ics that relates genet­ic diver­si­ty in a sam­ple to demo­graph­ic his­to­ry of the pop­u­la­tion from which it was tak­en.

That is, it is a mod­el of the effect of genet­ic drift, viewed back­wards in time, on the geneal­o­gy of antecedents.

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